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Important Chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water

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Chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water Chemical Characteristics H2O is the chemical formula for water. Water's capacity to "stick" to itself and other surfaces is due to its unusual form, which has both hydrogen atoms on the same side of the oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms provide a positive electrical charge, whereas the oxygen atom produces a negative electrical charge. Total Dissolved Solids (<500) Total solids can be found by evaporating a sample of water and weighing the dry residue left. Suspended solids can be found by filtering a water sample through Whatman filter paper No.44 The maximum number of solids that can be present in water is usually regulated at 500 parts per million (ppm). pH (6.5 to 8.5) It is measure by hydrogen ion concentration in water. It is measure by Potentiometer and Colorimetric method Alkalinity & Acidity Alkalinity is caused by bicarbonates of Ca & Mg and carbonates, hydroxides of Ca, Mg, Na, K. Alkalinity effect

Important 7 Terminologies used in the Surveying

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We are now sharing the 7 terminologies taken from the subject Surveying. The 7 terminologies are as under General Notes The purpose of surveying is to create a plan and a map. The plan is a large-scale depiction of a limited region. A map is a small-scale depiction of a limited region. The surveying principle To start with the big picture and work my way down to the details At least two measurements are required to find a new station. Geodetic surveying (area > 250 km2) is when the curvature of the earth is considered. Plane surveying (Area 250 km2) is when the curvature of the earth is not considered. On the surface of the earth, the difference between the long arch of a circle and the subtended chord is 0.1 meters for 18.2 kilometers, 0.3 meters for 54.3 kilometers, and 0.5 meters for 91 kilometers. The sum of the angles on a spherical triangle on the earth's surface and the equivalent plane triangle is 1 second per 195.5 square kilometers of land area. Rad

6 most important 1 liners from the subject Steel

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6 most important 1 liners from the subject Steel taken from the field Civil Engineering 1 Liners from the subject Steel Poisson's ratio "Poisson's ratio v" is a measure of the Poisson effect, which is the deformation (expansion or contraction) of material in directions perpendicular to the specific direction of loading in materials science and solid mechanics. The negative of the ratio of transverse strain to axial strain is Poisson's ratio. "v" is the amount of transversal elongation divided by the amount of axial compression for modest values of these changes. The Poisson's ratio of most materials is between 0.0 and 0.5. Poisson's ratio is around 0.5 in soft materials like rubber, where the bulk modulus is larger than the shear modulus. Poisson's ratio is approaching zero in open-cell polymer foams because the cells collapse with compression. The Poisson's ratios of several common solids are in the range of 0.2-0.3. Simeon Poisson,

Meaning of the most important 7 different terminologies used in the Staircase

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Meaning of the 7 different terminologies used in the Staircase 7 different terminologies are as under TREAD A staircase tread is the physical step of a staircase where your foot is placed. RISER From one tread to the next, the vertical dimension is termed as Riser. GOING Individual goings of steps are measured from the face of the riser to the face of the riser and should be a minimum of 240mm for residential usage. STRINGERS There are two fundamental forms on the stairwell's sides. A full stringer is a board that includes treads and risers. Cut stringer is installed on the treads and risers' undersides. NOSING The front overhang of the tread, which is usually 20mm. For a cleaner appearance, modern stairs frequently do not have an overhang. LANDING Between two flights of steps, there is an intermediate level or platform. Landings, which might be a ½ landing or a ¼ landing, allow for directional adjustments in stair movement. FLOOR TO FLOOR The total rise of the

6 important terms from the estimation

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The 6 important terms taken from the subject of the Estimation Following are the 6 important terms from the estimation Annuity That is the annual quarterly contributions made by a party to refund the capital sum spent. Annuity Certain An annuity certain is one in which the sum of an annuity is accrued over a set number of dates or years. Annuity Due If the balance of an annuity is charged at the start of each month of the year and payments occur for a certain number of years, it is referred to as an annuity due. Deferred Annuity Deferred Annuity occurs as the payment of an annuity resumes at an unknown date after a period of years. Perpetual Annuity A lifelong annuity is one in which the contributions to an annuity begin indefinitely. Rent It is a charge made on an annual or quarterly basis for the use of land or land and construction. Thanks for reading the article, keep sharing it. Thanks, Kumar Bhanushali

Important advantages of using minerals (5) in cement

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Advantages of using minerals in cement are as given under Minerals are having their own advantages if using it with Cement Fly ash Increases structural protection and toughness Increases resistance to toxic threats Better workability Blast furnace slag Improved stability Increased setting time Strength benefit lasts for a long time Reduced chance of alkali-silica reaction injury Impervious to chloride and sulphate threats Silica fumes Better compressive power and abrasion resistance Reduced chloride ion permeability Improved workability Cuts down on bleeding Rise husky ash Reduced heat of hydration in concrete Reduced permeability in concrete Improved resilience to chloride and sulphate attacks Metakaolin Improved compressive and flexural strength Reduced permeability More chemically tolerant Durability is improved. Hope you liked this article, Thanks for reading it. Thanks, Kumar Bhanushali

Building Material and Construction (BMC)

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Notes on Building Material and Construction (in short form, BMC) Common Building Materials from Building Material and Construction are Cement Lime Aggregates Mortar Admixture Concrete Bricks Stones Steel Timber Miscellaneous Cement Cement is an organic building material with a binding property of construction that was invented by Mr. Joseph Aspedin in the years 1824-1825. Calcareous Compounds (Compounds containing Ca, Hg) and Argillaceous Compounds make up the majority of cement (Compounds having Silica, Aluminium Oxides) Examples of Calcareous Compounds are Limestones, Cement Rocks, Chalk, Marine Shell, Alkali Waste Examples of Argillaceous Compounds are the Clay, Slate, Ash OPC's Different Constituents (i.e Ordinary Portland Cement) Lime (CaO - 62% to 67%) It gives cement its strength and stability. If there is so much lime in the mortar, it becomes unsound, allowing it to spread and then disintegrate. A lack of lime decreases the strength of