Showing posts with the label Engineering

Chapter 3 – The main items of work in the detailed estimates

Chapter 3 - The main items of work in the detailed estimates The main items of work are as under, Earthwork - Quantities are measured in cubic meters during both excavation and filling. Concrete in foundations - The cubic meter is the unit of measurement. Brick Soling Work - The quantity is measured in square meters, and it is nothing more than a single layer of bricks laid beneath the foundation concrete. D.P.C. (Damp Proof Course) - Quantity is measured in square meters. Masonry Work - Cubic meters are used to quantify quantity. Lintels over apertures - The cubic meter is the unit of measurement. Roofing and flooring - Quantities are measured in sq m. Work with Reinforced Cement Concrete (R.C.C.) - The cubic meter is the unit of measurement. Plastering and pointing - The square meter is the unit of measurement. Pillars - Cubic meters are used to quantify quantity. Quantity is measured in square meters for doors, windows, and ventilators. Kilograms and Tonnes are

Chapter 2 - Different Important Types of Estimates

Chapter 2 - Different Types of Estimates In our earlier article, i.e. Chapter 1 – Basic Introduction to Estimating and Quantity Surveying , we have learned about the basics of Estimates and Quantity Surveying. Now, in this article, we will be going to learn about the different types of estimates that are used to carry out the estimates in this field of Civil Engineering. Follow the article to learn more about the types of estimates, Types of Estimates Detailed estimate or Item Rate estimate or Intensive estimate. A detailed estimate is a precise estimate that is created in two steps. The first stage involves accurately extracting the measurements of each item from the drawings and computing the amounts beneath each item. The cost of each piece of work is determined in the second step, and the overall cost is computed by adding all of the expenses together. A percentage of the projected cost is added to account for those things that do not fall under any of the other headings, as well

Important Chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water

Chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water Chemical Characteristics H2O is the chemical formula for water. Water's capacity to "stick" to itself and other surfaces is due to its unusual form, which has both hydrogen atoms on the same side of the oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms provide a positive electrical charge, whereas the oxygen atom produces a negative electrical charge. Total Dissolved Solids (<500) Total solids can be found by evaporating a sample of water and weighing the dry residue left. Suspended solids can be found by filtering a water sample through Whatman filter paper No.44 The maximum number of solids that can be present in water is usually regulated at 500 parts per million (ppm). pH (6.5 to 8.5) It is measure by hydrogen ion concentration in water. It is measure by Potentiometer and Colorimetric method Alkalinity & Acidity Alkalinity is caused by bicarbonates of Ca & Mg and carbonates, hydroxides of Ca, Mg, Na, K. Alkalinity effect

Building Material and Construction (BMC)

Notes on Building Material and Construction (in short form, BMC) Common Building Materials from Building Material and Construction are Cement Lime Aggregates Mortar Admixture Concrete Bricks Stones Steel Timber Miscellaneous Cement Cement is an organic building material with a binding property of construction that was invented by Mr. Joseph Aspedin in the years 1824-1825. Calcareous Compounds (Compounds containing Ca, Hg) and Argillaceous Compounds make up the majority of cement (Compounds having Silica, Aluminium Oxides) Examples of Calcareous Compounds are Limestones, Cement Rocks, Chalk, Marine Shell, Alkali Waste Examples of Argillaceous Compounds are the Clay, Slate, Ash OPC's Different Constituents (i.e Ordinary Portland Cement) Lime (CaO - 62% to 67%) It gives cement its strength and stability. If there is so much lime in the mortar, it becomes unsound, allowing it to spread and then disintegrate. A lack of lime decreases the strength of

Important 1 Liners from Irrigation Engineering

Few of the Important 1 Liners from the subject Irrigation Engineering Irrigation Engineering - 1 liners Kor-watering Kor-Watering of Crops refers to the first watering provided to a crop after it has grown a few centimeters. The ideal depth for kor-watering, For Rice - 19cm For Wheat - 13.5cm For Sugarcane - 16.5cm Paleo (Paleva) Paleo, also known as Paleva, is the first watering before planting the crop. Base Period The interval between the first and last waterings Crop Period Time elapsed between crop sowing and harvesting. Aqueduct (like a bridge) A canal that spans a natural drain. Super Passage Natural Drainage Across the Canal Level Crossing Both the natural drain and the canal are on the same level. Syphon Aqueduct Built where the H.F.L of natural drainage is greater than the H.F.L of the canal bed Other 1 Liners The Mass Inflow Curve is used to calculate reservoir capacity for a given demand. Clover Leaf Cofferdam Is a Cellular Type The Phreatic Line

Most Important 1 Liners (Civil Engineering)

Most Important 1 Liners from the Various Subjects of the Civil Engineering Common most important 1 liners from various subjects 1 Liners about Plumbing services Plumbing systems provide services such as water supply, irrigation, and sanitation, among others. Pipes Soil pipe: A soil pipe is a pipe through which human excreta flows Waste pipe: It is a pipe that carries only liquid waste. It does not carry human excreta. Vent pipe: It is a pipe that is provided for the purpose of the ventilation of the system. It facilitates the exit of foul gases. Rainwater pipe: It is a pipe that carries only rainwater. Anti-siphonage pipe: It is a pipe that is installed in the house drainage to preserve the water seal of traps. Varied sizes of pipe are commonly used in house drainage, Soil Pipe: 100mm, Waste pipe (Horizontal): 30 to 50 mm, Waste pipe (Vertical): 75 mm, Rainwater pipe: 75 mm, Vent pipe: 50 mm, Anti siphonage pipe - Connected with soil pipe: 50mm & Connecting waste pi