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The common abbreviations used in civil engineering

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With this article, we will know the most common abbreviations used in civil engineering. Let we start, The most common abbreviations used A.A.S.H.T.O – American Association of state highway Transport Official. A.C.I – American Concrete Institute. A.R.E.A – American Railway Engineering Association. A.B – Anchor Bolt or Asbestos Board AC – Asphalt Concrete A.S.C – Allowable Stress of concrete. A.S.T.M – American society for testing materials AC – Asbestos cement. AE – Assistant Engineer APM – Assistant Project Manager B.M – Benchmark B.M – Bending moment. BLK – Block Work BOQ – Bill of Quantities BRW – Brick Retaining Wall BWK – Brick Work B.O.F – Bottom of Foundation BHK – Bedroom, Hall, Kitchen C.I. Pipe – Cast iron pipe. C.I. Sheet – Corrugated Iron sheet. CL- Centre Line CRW – Concrete Retaining Wall CBW – Concrete Block Wall CIP – Cast in Place CMU – Concrete Masonry Unit CJ – Construction Joint CC – Centre to Centre CC – Cemen

6 Main Components of Project Cost

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6 Main Components of Project Cost Project Cost The entire amount of money needed to execute a project or piece of work, including direct and indirect expenditures, is referred to as the project cost. All costs or monetary obligations incurred or expected to be incurred to accomplish the projects specified in the project baseline are included in the project cost. There are 6 main components behind the project cost, and we are going to know about these 6 main components of the Project Cost in the brief in this article 6 main components are as follows Indirect cost Outage loss + Overheads Direct project cost These include labor cost, material cost, equipment cost, etc. Normal time Normal time is the standard time that an estimator would usually allow for an activity. Crash time Crash time is the minimum possible time which an activity can be completed by employing extra resources Normal cost This is the direct cost required to complete the activity in normal time duratio